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Month: November, 2013

The Rainbow Story

rainbow

Once upon a time the colours of the world started to quarrel, all claiming that they were the best, the most important, the most useful, the favourite.

Green said: Clearly I am the most important. I am the sign of life and hope. I was chosen for grass, leaves, trees – without me, all animals would die. Look out over the countryside and you will see that I am in the majority.

Blue interrupted: You only think about the Earth, but consider the sky and the sea. It is the water that is the basis of life and drawn up by clouds from the deep sea. The sky gives space and peace and serenity. Without my peace, you would all be nothing.

Yellow chuckled: You are all so serious. I bring laughter, gaiety, and warmth to the world. The Sun is yellow, the moon is yellow, the stars are yellow. Every time you look at a sunflower, the whole world starts to smile. Without me, there would be no fun.

Orange started next to blow her trumpet: I am the colour of health and strength. I may be scarce but I am precious for I serve the needs of human life. I carry the most important vitamins. Think of carrots, pumpkins, oranges, mangos, and pawpaws. I don’t hang around all the time, but when I fill the sky at sunrise or sunset, my beauty is so striking that no one gives another thought to any of you.

Red could stand it no longer. He shouted out: I am the ruler of all of you. I am blood! Life’s is blood. I am the colour of danger and of bravery. I am willing to fight for a cause. I bring fire to the blood! I am the colour of passion and of love, the red rose, the poppy and the poinsettia. Without me, the earth would be as empty as the moon!

Purple rose up to his full height. He was very tall and spoke with great pomp: I am the colour of royalty and power. Kings, Chiefs, and Bishops have always chosen me for I am a sign of authority and wisdom. People do not question me. They obey.

Finally, Indigo spoke, much more quietly than all the others but with just as much determination: Think of me. I am the colour of silence. You hardly notice me, but without me, you all become superficial. I represent thought and reflection, twilight and deep water. You need me for balance and contrast, for prayer and inner peace.

And so all the colours went on boasting and quarrelling, each convinced of their own superiority. Soon, their quarrelling became louder and louder. Suddenly there was a startling flash of bright lightening! Thunder rolled and boomed! Rain started to pour down relentlessly. The colours crouched down in fear drawing close to one another for comfort.

In the midst of the clamour, Rain began to speak: “You foolish colours, fighting amongst yourselves, each trying to dominate the rest. Don’t you know you were each made for a special purpose, unique and different? Join hands with one another and come to me.”

Doing as they were told, the colours united and joined hands. The rain continued: “ From now on, when it rains, each of you will stretch across the sky in a great bow of colours as a reminder that you can live in peace. The Rainbow is a sigh of hope for tomorrow.”

And so, whenever a good rain washes the world and a rainbow appears in the sky, let us remember to appreciate one another.

– Author Unknown

The Cocoon and the Butterfly

Viceroy_Butterfly

A man found a cocoon of a butterfly. One day a small opening appeared. He sat and watched the butterfly for several hours as it struggled to squeeze its body through the tiny hole. Then it stopped, as if it couldn’t go further.

So the man decided to help the butterfly. He took a pair of scissors and snipped of the remaining bits of cocoon. The butterfly emerged easily but it had a swollen body and shrivelled wings.

The man continued to watch it, expecting that any minute the wings would enlarge and expand enough to support the body. Neither happened! In fact, the butterfly spent the rest of its life crawling around. It was never able to fly.

What the man in his kindness and haste did not understand: The restricting cocoon and the struggle required by the butterfly to get through the opening was a way of forcing the fluid from the body into the wings so that it would be ready for flight once that was achieved.

Sometimes struggles are exactly what we need in our lives. Going through life with no obstacles would cripple us. We will not be as strong as we could have been and we would never fly.

– Author Unknown

The Kobe Code

Kobe Bean Bryant nicknamed the black mamba is an American professional basketball player for the Los Angeles Lakers of the NBA (National Basketball Association). He entered the NBA directly from the high school and played for the Lakers his entire career, winning five NBA championships. Bryant is a 15-time All-Star, 15-time All Defensive team. He is currently ranked third on the league’s all-time post season scoring and fourth in the all-time regular season scoring lists. How did he achieve what he achieved?

Cracking the code of Bryant’s huge success, Pat Mixon wrote a wonderful little book, The Kobe Code: Eight Principles for Success, that is at once inspiring and practical. Inspiring because it shows how one of the most extraordinary athletes of our time has pushed the seemingly impossible limits to make them possible. Practical because you can learn these valuable principles, which are eight in number and make an uncommon effort to put them into practice to achieve uncommon success in whatever field you are passionately in love with.

Why eight principles? The number eight is significant in Kobe’s life. It was his jersey number when he entered the NBA. What is more, the number eight represents infinity in eastern philosophies. Later he changed his jersey number from 8 to 24 and explained the reason for this switch. He said at this stage of his basketball career, it really is all about taking each day as it comes and enjoying each moment. It is symbolic to him to take each day as it comes and take one day at a time.

The eight principles in Kobe’s own words for achieving uncommon success are:

1. Have a Gladiator Mentality and Welcome all Changes: A challenge was issued to me by everyone who said I would never succeed again, that I would never win or enjoy another parade. I accepted their challenge. I accepted the doubt of everyone who spoke of my downfall and used their words as fuel. I have a franchise to resurrect, a city of fans to uplift.

2. Know What Fuels You, What Drives You: I have always had a purpose, a need to succeed. People who try to discourage me only add fuel to a fire that has always burned. Every phase of my life has brought me new risks and new rewards; in may ways I have always been the underdog. And through it all, through every struggle, the game has always been there. It has never left me alone.

3. Fear is a Great Motivator: My biggest fear is not winning another title. Fear is a great motivator.

4. Be A Talented Overachiever: When I saw the movie Rudy I remember thinking, “what if I worked that hard? God has blessed me both physically and intellectually to play this game, so what would happen if I push as hard as the character in this film? I would love for people to think of me as a talented overachiever.”

5. Accept Your Nature: It’s Ok to be different than others. It’s Ok to want to be the best. It’s Ok to feel like a loser if you don’t win it all, and it’s Ok to bounce back with a stronger will, a deeper sense of determination, and a desire to destroy your opposition. I have learned that it is Ok for me to be me, and what being me entails.

6. Honor the Game: Because the game has given me so much I know that I must give it the respect it deserves. I must work hard to master it, to show it my appreciation for all it has done for me as a person, as a man. 

7. Master Your Craft: What thrills me most about the game is the purity of it and the choice to master it. The process, the work, the beauty of it has always inspired me.

8. Live With Passion: What I have come to learn is that my desire to win, the will to pursue my goals with the highest level of intensity and passion defines me. 

Apply these principles in your life and whatever career your passion leads you into, and you are sure to achieve uncommon success!

The Man Who Invented Management

(November19, 1909 - November 11, 2005)

(November19, 1909 – November 11, 2005)

Today is the one-hundred-and-fourth birth anniversary of Peter Drucker, the man who invented management. BusinessWeek reported shortly after his death at 95 in 2005 that: Whether it’s recognised or not, the organisation and practice of management today is derived largely from the thinking of Peter Drucker. What John Maynard Keynes is to economics or W. Edwards Deming to Quality, Drucker is to management.

Ahead of His Time

Drucker was always ahead of his time. BusinessWeek succinctly summarised some of the major accomplishments upon his death in 2005:

In the 1940s, he introduced the idea of decentralisation, which became a bedrock principle for virtually every large organisation in the world.

In the 1950s, he was the first to assert that workers should be treated as assets, not as liabilities to be eliminated.

In the1950s, he presented for the first time the concept of corporation as a human community built on trust and respect for the worker and not just a profit-making machine, a perspective that won an almost Godlike reverence among the Japanese.

In the1950s, he was the first to clearly articulate that the purpose of any business is to create and keep a customer and that there is no business without a customer. A simple but powerful notion  that ushered in a new marketing mindset.

In the1960s, he was the first to argue for the importance of substance over style, for institutionalised practices over charismatic, cult leaders.

In the 1970s, he wrote about the contribution of knowledge workers and for the first time explained how knowledge would trump raw material as the essential capital of the New Economy.

Books written by Peter F. Drucker

1. The End of Economic Man, 1939

2. The Future of Industrial Man. A conservative approach, 1942

3. Concept of the Corporation, 1946

4. The New Society: The Anatomy of Industrial Order,

5. The Practice of Management, 1954

6. America’s Next Twenty Years, 1955

7. Landmarks of Tomorrow: A Report on the “New Post-Modern World”, 1957

8. Technology, Management & Society, 1958

9. Managing for Results, 1964

10. The Effective Executive, 1967

11. The Age of Discontinuity: Guidelines for Our Changing Society, 1969

12. Preparing Tomorrow’s Business Leaders Today (Ed.), 1969

13. Drucker on Management, 1971

14. Men, Ideas & Politics: Essays, 1971

15. The New Markets & Other Essays, 1971

16. Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices, 1973

17. The Unseen Revolution – How Pension Fund Socialism Came to America, 1976

18. People and Performance: The Best of Peter Drucker on Management, 1977

19. Management Cases, 1977

20. Adventures of a Bystander (Autobiography), 1979

21. Managing in Turbulent Times, 1980

22. Toward the Next Economics and Other Essays, 1981

23. The Last of All Possible Worlds (Novel), 1982

24. The Changing World of the Executive, 1982

25. The Temptation to do Good (Novel), 1984

26. Innovation & Entrepreneurship: Practice & Principles, 1985

27. The Frontiers of Management: Where Tomorrow’s Decisions are Being Shaped Today, 1986

28. The New Realities, in Government and Politics, in Economics and Business, in Society and world View, 1989

29. Managing the Non-Profit Organization: Practices and Principles, 1990

30. Our Changing Economic Society: The Best of Drucker’s Thinking on Economic and Societal Change (Collection of articles), 1991

31. Managing for the Future: The 1990s and Beyond, 1992

32. The Ecological Vision: Reflections on the American Condition, 1993

33. Post-Capitalist Society, 1993

34. Managing in a Time of Great Change, 1995

35. The Executive in Action: Managing for Results, Innovation & Entrepreneurship, The Effective Executive, 1996

36. The Pension Fund Revolution, 1996

37. Landmarks of Tomorrow (with a new introduction by Peter Drucker), 1996

38. Peter Drucker on the Profession of Management (A collection of articles published in HBR 1963-1994), 1998

39. Management Challenges for the 21st Century, 1999

40. The Essential Drucker: The Best of Sixty Years of Peter Drucker’s Essential Writings on Management, 2001

41. Managing in the Next Society, 2002

42. A Functioning Society: Selections from Sixty-Five Years of Writing on Community, Society and Policy, 2003

43. The Daily Drucker, 2004

44. The Effective Executive in Action, 2006

45. Classic Drucker: Wisdom from Peter Drucker from the Pages of Harvard Business Review, 2006

46. Management. Revised Edition of Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices, 2008

Harvard Business Review Articles by Peter Drucker:

1. Behind Japan’s Success

2. Big Business and National Purpose

3. Getting Things Done. How to Make People Decisions

4. Is Business Letting Young People Down?

5. Looking Ahead. Implications of the Present

6. Management and the World’s Work

7. Management’s New Role

8. Managing for Business Effectiveness

9. Managing Oneself

10. New Templates for Today’s Organizations

11. Our Entrepreneurial Economy

12. Reckoning with the Pension Fund Revolution

13. Restoring Public Trust

14. The Big Power of Little Ideas

15. The Coming of New Organization

16. The Competitive World

17. The Discipline of Innovation

18. The Effective Decision

19. The Emerging Theory of Manufacturing

20. The Information Executives Truly Need

21. The New Productivity Challenge

22. The New Society of Organizations

23. The Right and Wrong Compromise

24. Theory of Business

25. They are not Employees, They are People

26. Twelve Fables of Research Management

27. What Business Can Learn from Non-profits

28. What Executives Should Remember

29. What makes an Effective Executive

30. What we can learn from Japanese Management

Rick Warren, the author of The Purpose Driven Life said during the inaugural Peter Drucker Forum in Vienna celebrating Drucker’s 100th birthday in 2009: Peter was far more than the founder of modern management, far more than a brilliant man, one of the greatest minds of the 20th century. He was a great soul. If I summed up Peter’s life in three words, it would be integrity, humility, and generosity… Peter was the only truly Renaissance man I’ve ever known. He had a way of looking at the world in a systems view that said it all matters.

Drucker’s simplicity and humility are palpable. He once said: None of my books or ideas means anything to me in the long run.What are theories? Nothing. The only thing that matters is how you touch people. Have I given anyone insight? That’s what I want to have done. Insight lasts; theories don’t. And even insight decays into small details, which is how it should be. A few details that have meaning in one’s life are important.

Jim Collins, best selling author of Good to Great and Built to Last once wrote about Drucker: For me Drucker’s most important lessons cannot be found in any text or lecture but in the example of his life. I made a personal pilgrimage to Claremont, California in 1994 seeking wisdom from the greatest management thinker of our age, and I came away feeling that I’d met a compassionate and generous human being who – almost as a side benefit -was prolific genius… Peter F. Drucker was driven not by the desire to say something, but by the desire to learn something from every student he met – and that is why he became one of the most influential teachers most of us have ever known.

Drucker on Leadership

November 19, 1909 - November 11, 2005

(November 19, 1909 – November 11, 2005)

Peter Ferdinand Drucker, one of the most respected management thinkers of the twentieth century was a prolific writer, professor, management consultant and social ecologist. Business Week hailed him as the man who invented management. He directly influenced a huge number of leaders from a wide range of organisations across all sectors of society such as General Electric, IBM, Intel, Proctor & Gamble, Girl Scouts of the USA, The Salvation Army, Red Cross, United Farm Workers.

Drucker wrote 39 books and several scholarly and popular articles. He was prophetic in his writings and predicted many of the major developments of the late 20th century, including privatisation and decentralisation, the rise of Japan to economic world power, the decisive importance of marketing and innovation, and the emergence of information society the necessity of lifelong learning.

Winston Churchill after reading Drucker’s first major work, The End of Economic man in 1939, described him as one of those writers to whom almost anything can be forgiven because he not only has a mind of his own, but has the gift of starting other minds along a stimulating line of thought.

Drucker had a distinguished career as consultant and teacher. He started his teaching career first as a professor of politics and philosophy at Bennington College from 1942 to 1949 and moved over to New York University as a professor of management for the next twenty years (1950-1971). He went to California in 1971, where he developed one of the country’s first Executive MBA programs for working professionals at Claremont Graduate University. From 1971 until his death, he was the Clarke Professor of Social Science and Management at Claremont. The Claremont Graduate University’s management school was named the Peter F. Drucker Graduate School of Management in his honour in 1987, which was later renamed as Peter F. Drucker and Masatoshi Ito Graduate School of Management. Drucker taught his last class in 2002 at the age of 92.

Here are some of the awards and honours bestowed upon Drucker:

A. Presidential Medal of Freedom by US President George W. Bush in 2002.

B. Grand Silver Medal for Services to the Republic of Austria in 1974.

C. Grand Gold Decoration for Services to the Republic of Austria in 1991.

D. Austrian Cross of Honour for Science and Art, 1st class in 1999.

E. Order of the Sacred Treasure, Japan in 1966

F. New York University’s highest honour, its Presidential Citation in 1969.

G. Seven McKinsey Awards for articles published in Harvard Business Review, the most awarded to one person.

H. Junior Achievement US Business Hall of Fame in 1996.

I. Third most influential management book of the 20th century award for his 1954 book – the Practice of Management.

J. Naming of the Eleventh Street between College Avenue and Dartmouth Avenue in Claremont, California as Drucker Way in October 2009.

Here are twelve gems on leadership from Drucker’s writings:

1. Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things.

2. Efficiency is doing the thing right. Effectiveness is doing the right thing.

3. Whenever you see a successful business, someone once made a courageous decision.

4. The leaders who work mod effectively, it seems to me never say, “I.” And that’s not because they have trained themselves not to say “I.” They don’t think “I.” They think “we”; they think “team.” They understand their job to be to make the team function. They accept responsibility and don’t sidestep it, but “we” gets the credit. this is what creates trust, what enables you to get the task done.

5. Rank does not confer privilege or give power. It imposes responsibility.

6. Results are obtained by exploiting opportunities, not by solving problems.

7. Your first and foremost job as a leader is to take charge of your own energy and then help to orchestrate the energy of those around you.

8. People in any organisation are always attached to the obsolete – the things that would have worked but did not, the things that once were productive and no longer are.

9. Leadership is not magnetic personality, that can just as well be a glib tongue. It is not “making friends and influencing people”, that is flattery. Leadership is lifting a person’s vision to higher sights, the raising of a performance to a higher standard, the building of a personality beyond its normal limitations.

10. The three most charismatic leaders in this century inflicted more suffering on the human are than almost any trio in history: Hitler, Stalin, and Mao. What matters is not the leader’s charisma. What matters is the leader’s mission.

11. Effective leadership is not about making speeches or being liked; leadership is defined by results not attributes.

12. The best way to predict the future… is to create it.

David Ogilvy’s Enduring Advertising Principles

June 23, 1911 - July 21, 1999

June 23, 1911 – July 21, 1999

Seventy-four years ago, David Ogilvy the legendary adman now, was a young 25-year old assistant executive when he got given a very rare and unique opportunity of addressing his entire agency staff on his views on advertising. Many years later, when Ogilvy became the chairman of Ogilvy & Mather sent the following excerpt of what he presented as his views on advertising in 1936 to his staff with two comments stating that it proves two things:

At 25 I was brilliantly clever, and

I have learned nothing new in the subsequent 27 years.

Here are the views he presented to his agency staff in 1936, which are as relevant today as they were then as published in The Un-published David Ogilvy, brilliantly edited by Joel Raphaelson.

Every advertisement must tell the whole story, because the public does not read advertisements in series.

The copy must be human and very simple, keyed right down to its market – a market in which self-conscious artwork and fine language serve only to make the buyers wary.

Every word in the copy must count. Concrete figures must be substituted for atmospheric claims; clichés must give way to facts, and empty exhortations to alluring offers.

Facetious advertising is a device dear to the amateur but anathema to the advertising agent, who learns that permanent success has rarely been built on frivolity and that people do not buy from clowns.

Superlatives belong to the market place and have no place in a serious advertisement; they lead readers to discount the realism of every claim.

Apparent monotony of treatment must be tolerated, because only the manufacturer reads all his own advertisements.

Follow these enduring advertising principles in your communication strategies and you are sure to be on your road to uncommon success.

Great Movie Speeches: Inch-by-inch From Any Given Sunday

Al Pacino as Coach Tony D'Amato in Any Given Sunday

Al Pacino as Coach Tony D’Amato in Any Given Sunday

Any given Sunday is a 1999 American drama film directed by Oliver Stone depicting a fictional professional American football team. The film’s cast includes apart from Al Pacino, Cameron Diaz, Charlton Heston, Ann-Margaret, the legendary NFL players Jim Brown and Lawrence Taylor. Further more, cameo roles also featured many former Americal football players including Dick Butkus, A. Tttle, Pat Toomay, Warren Moon, Johnny Unitas, Ricky Watters, Emmit Smith and Terrel Owens, as well as coach Barry Switzer.

Al Pacino gives a stellar performance in the movie and also delivers one of the most inspiring movie speeches ever to inspire his team in the final game shown. Click here to watch the famous ‘inch-by-inch’ speech by the veteran coach Tony D’Amato (played by Al Pacino). The speech stirred his team and propelled them to a winning performance in the final seconds of the game.

I don’t know what to say really.

Three minutes to the biggest battle of our professional lives all comes down to today.

Either we heal as a team or we are going to crumble.

Inch by inch

Play by play

till we are finished.

We are in hell right now, gentlemen, believe me and we can stay here and get the shit kicked out of us or

we can fight our way back into the light.

We can climb out of hell. One inch, at a time.

Now I can’t do it for you. I’m too old.

I look around and I see these young faces and

I think

I mean

I made every wrong choice a middle age man could make. I uh…

I pissed away all my money believe it or not.

I chased off anyone who has ever loved me.

And lately I can’t even stand the face I see in the mirror.

You know when you get old in life things get taken from you.

That’s part of life. But, you only learn that when you start losing stuff.

You find out that life is just a game of inches. So is football.

Because, in either game, life or football the margin for error is so small.

I mean, one half step too late or early you don’t quite make it.

One half second too slow or too fast and you don’t quite catch it.

The inches we need are everywhere around us.

They are in ever break of the game – every minute, every second.

On this team, we fight for that inch

On this team, we tear ourselves, and everyone around us to pieces for that inch.

We CLAW with our finger nails for that inch.

Cause we know when we add up all those inches that’s going to make the f***ing difference

between WINNING and LOSING

between LIVING and DYING.

I’ll tell you this – in any fight, it is the guy who is willing to die

who is going to win that inch.

And I know If I am going to have any life anymore

it is because, I am still willing to fight, and die for that inch because that is what LIVING is.

The six inches in front of your face.

Now I can’t make you do it. You gotta look at the guy next to you.

Look into his eyes. Now I think you are going to see a guy who will go that inch with you.

You are going to see a guy who will sacrifice himself for this team

because he knows when it comes down to it, you are gonna do the same thing for him.

That’s a team, gentleman

and either we heal now, as a team,

or we will die as individuals.

That’s football guys. That’s all it is.

Now, Whattaya gonna do?

Can you think of  creating and delivering a communication as motivating as the  one here to rally your troops to achieve whatever you have set to achieve?

B-Complex for Copywriters

World’s Number One Pharma Billionaire!

8.-Dilip-Shanghvi

The third richest billionaire from India, Dilip Shanghvi is also the Number One Billionaire in the world pharmaceutical industry. Forbes India in October 2013 listed Dilip Shanghvi as the third richest among billionaires from India with a net worth of $ 13.9 billion. He is the biggest dollar gainer, up by a whopping $ 4.7 billion this year. When you take into account billionaires only from pharmaceutical industry, Dilip Shanghvi is at the number one position. How did he achieve this unique distinction? By starting and building India’s most valuable drug company, Sun Pharma with a market capitalisation of about $ 16 billion.

Started thirty years ago in 1983, with one product and a two-member field staff to promote its first product, Lithosun the company grew rapidly. From a meagre first year sales of  $ 0.02 million the company has grown to a $ 2 billion plus company by 2013 into a vertically integrated specialty pharma company with 23 manufacturing facilities spread over the five continents and a growing presence in fifty countries across the world.

What makes Dilip Shanghvi Dilip Shanghvi? There are at least seven distinctive characteristics and competencies  or winning habits that separate him from the rest.

Unparalleled Domain Knowledge. Dilip Shanghvi’s depth and breadth of knowledge about the end to end of the pharmaceutical business from R&D to manufacturing to marketing and finance is unparalleled.

Industry Foresight. He has an uncommon Ability of Spotting Opportunities and seizing them. He often sees opportunities where others don’t see them, and before others if they do see them. It was in 1984, which the second year of Sun Pharma that the Waxman and Hatch Act came in to existence. Shanghvi set his sights on this lucrative  North American generic market right from the moment that the Country had paved the way for speedy market access to generic versions of the off-patent drugs.

Thinking Differently. His ability to think differently and out-of-the-box helping him choose, design strategies that are distinctly different from others and choose a road less travelled and even not travelled. He was the first to think of creating stand-alone specialty divisions to serve the needs of physicians specialising in a particular therapy area or branch of medicine such as Psychiatry, Neurology, Gastroenterology, Cardiology, and others before anyone even thought of and reaped rich dividends in terms of market leader ship. Other companies later replicated this model.

Ability to Measure and Manage Risk. Dilip Shanghvi has an incredible ability to measure and manage risk. The number of at-risk generic launches in North America amplify this.

Relentless Focus. Focus seems to be his first name. It is this focus coupled with cost controls, Sun’s proprietary know-how, although it is not officially patented, and ruthless execution that turned every business the company acquired. Every single one of the sixteen acquisitions have been turned around are on a healthy growth path.

Goal-Directed Behaviour. Goal setting seems to be his second nature. Shanghvi has always set goals that are challenging and has an unflinching determination to realise them.

Simplicity and Humane Nature. It is very difficult to be as simple as him with such a huge success. Shanghvi himself says that he never takes him too seriously. He is simple, down-to-earth even today. He would not hesitate to rush out even in the dead of the night if required to help out and counsel employees in their times of need.

Shanghvi’s managerial style contrasts with that of the iconic industry leader and great innovator, the late Steve Jobs. Shanghvi once said: Jobs’ philosophy was to hire the best and ensure that there is not a ‘B’ member in your team. I prefer to get the best out of the average people.

Above all the secret of Shanghvi’s huge success is in the lesson that he learnt from his father, that one should take into account the long-term implications of decisions and relationships are more important over making money. Today Sun Pharma’s success is built upon these principles: We do not look at products as profit centres but look at profit by satisfying customer-needs.